Jamf School

Disclaimer: Due to a translation delay, translated versions of this guide may not be up-to-date with the latest version. If translated guides do not match the most recent product version, refer to the English version of this guide.

Jamf School 9.0.0 (2020-09-22)

Compatibility with iOS, iPadOS, tvOS, and watchOS

Jamf School 9.0.0 provides compatibility for the following:

  • iOS 14

  • iPadOS 14

  • tvOS 14

  • watchOS 7

This includes compatibility for the following:

  • Enrollment and inventory reporting

  • Profiles

  • App distribution

  • Jamf School apps

Automated Device Enrollment Enhancements

Additional Skip Steps for Automated Device Enrollment

You can now select the following skip steps for mobile device Automated Device Enrollments:

  • Software Update Completed (iOS)

  • Restore Completed (iOS)

Mobile Device Apps Enhancement

Prevent Users from Removing Managed Apps

You can now prevent or allow a user to remove a managed app from their mobile device, giving you more control over the managed apps in your environment. If a user removes the app from their device, the app is still accessible in the App Catalog in Jamf School. This feature applies to App Store apps and in-house apps installed on mobile devices with iOS 14 or later.

To access this feature, navigate to a managed mobile device app and select Prevent users from removing the app.

Mobile Device Enhancements

Mobile Device Profiles

The following table provides an overview of the mobile device profile enhancements in this release, including the property key, organized by payload:

Setting

Key Included in Payload

Requirement

Notes

App Extension SSO (Enhancement)

Managed apps in bundle

includeManagedAppsInBundleIdACL

iOS 14 or later

You can now allow only managed applications to access and use the credential bundle ID.

DNS (New Payload)

The payload for configuring encrypted DNS settings.

DNS Server

DNSProtocol

iOS 14 or later

Allows you to specify the transport protocol used to communicate with the DNS server.

Server Name

ServerName

When "TLS" is selected for the DNS server, this allows you to configure the hostname of a DNS-over-TLS server used to validate the server certificate.

Server URL

ServerURL

When "HTTPS" is selected for the DNS server, this allows you to configure the URI template of a DNS-over-HTTPS server used to validate the server certificate.

Server Addresses

ServerAddresses

Allows you to list DNS server IP addresses.

DNS Query Domains

SupplementalMatchDomains

Allows you to list domains used to determine which DNS queries will use the DNS server.

Prohibit users from disabling DNS settings

ProhibitDisablement

Allows you to prevent users from disabling DNS settings.

Enable DNS on-demand

 

Allows you to enable DNS on-demand. Selecting this setting enables the OnDemandRules XML configuration.

On-Demand Rules Configuration XML

ActionParameters

Allows you to specify the rules for on-demand DNS.

Notifications (Enhancement)

Show Preview

PreviewType

iOS 14 or later

You can now configure the display of notification previews. You can choose "Always", "When Unlocked", "Never", or "Do Not Configure".

Restrictions (Enhancement)

Allow displaying app clips

AllowAppClips

iOS 14 or later

Allows or prevents users from adding app clips

SCEP (Enhancement)

Key Size

Keysize

  • iOS 4 or later

  • tvOS 9 or later

Allows you to specify the key size, in bits. You can now specify "4096" as the key size.

VPN (Enhancements)

Prohibit users from disabling on-demand VPN settings

OnDemandUserOverrideDisabled

iOS 4 or later

You can now prevent users from disabling DNS settings on their mobile devices.

MTU

MTU

You can now specify the maximum transmission units (MTU) for the IKEv2 VPN connection.

Wi-Fi (Enhancement)

Disable MAC Address Randomization

DisableAssociationMACRandomization

iOS 14 or later

You can now disable MAC Address randomization for wireless networks. When this setting is enabled, a privacy warning is displayed in the device's settings indicating that the configured network has reduced privacy protections.

Additional Inventory Information for Mobile Devices

The following inventory information have been added in this release:

  • eSIM Identifier(EID)—Displays the eSIM identifier. (iOS 14 or later)

  • Label(Label)—Displays the label of this subscription.

  • ICCID(ICCID)—Displays the ICCID value.

  • IMEI(IMEI)—Displays the device IMEI number.

  • Carrier(CurrentCarrierNetwork)—Displays the name of the mobile device carrier.

  • Carrier Settings Version(CarrierSettingsVersion)—Displays the version of the carrier settings.

  • Phone Number(PhoneNumber)—Displays the raw phone number without punctuation, including the country code.

  • Voice Preferred(IsVoicePreferred)—Displays if this subscription should be preferred for voice.

  • Data Preferred(IsDataPreferred)—Displays if this subscription should be preferred for data.

  • Roaming(IsRoaming)—Displays if the device is roaming.

  • Current Mobile Country Code(CurrentMCC)—Displays the current Mobile Country Code as a numeric string.

  • Current Mobile Network Code(CurrentMNC)—Displays the current Mobile Network Code as a numeric string.

  • Time Zone (TimeZone)—Inventory information that displays the time zone set on the device.

Additional Reporting Capabilities for Mobile Devices

The following reporting capabilities have been added in this release:

  • Change Time ZoneA quick action command that allows you to configure the time zone set on a device.

  • Time ZoneDevice group criteria that allows you to create device groups based on the time zone set on the device.

Jamf School 8.9.0 (2020-09-12)

Two-Factor Authentication Sign-in

Administrators can now configure their profile and security settings, including two-factor authentication (2FA) for Jamf School, in the Jamf School account settings. For more information, see Setting Up Administrator Roles and Accounts in Jamf School.

Migration to Jamf Cloud (EU Regions)

On September 12-13 2020, the Jamf Cloud infrastructure for customers in the EU regions will move from manage.zuludesk.com to jamfcloud.com. During this maintenance period, you will not be able to use Jamf School. After the migration is complete, you can sign in to your Jamf School instance using the Jamf Cloud URL. For example: "https://schoolname.jamfcloud.com" If you have any questions about this maintenance, contact success@jamf.com.

Jamf School 8.8.13 (2020-09-09)

Bug Fixes and Enhancements

Jamf School

  • Improved how the data are displayed on the details view of an audit log.

  • Fixed an issue that prevented adding web clips with a number for a name to the Layout payload in a profile.

  • Fixed an issue that caused macOS profiles with "Genie Effect" configured for the Minimize using setting in the Dock payload to revert to "Scale Effect" after saving the profile.

Jamf School 8.8.12 (2020-09-03)

Agreements Updated for Instances Hosted in the EU (Frankfurt) Region

Because Jamf School has updated customer agreements, administrators in the EU (Frankfurt) region have 31 days from today to accept the updated agreements to continue using Jamf School. To sign the agreements, log in to Jamf School and follow the prompt to sign the updated agreements.

License Purchasing Enhancement

We have switched from PayPal to Stripe to streamline your license purchasing experience. Now, when you purchase device licenses in Jamf School, you will be redirected to Stripe to complete the purchase.

Bug Fixes and Enhancements

Jamf School

  • You can now select the Preserve Data Plan setting when wiping a device if the IMEI device inventory information was populated.

  • Improved the device image icons in Jamf School.

  • Fixed an issue that incorrectly displayed HTML tags in the Notes field of the device details.

  • Fixed an issue that prevented administrator accounts with the "Edit" privilege for Device Updates from updating devices using a bulk quick action command.

Jamf School 8.8.11 (2020-08-27)

Bug Fixes and Enhancements

Jamf School

  • Fixed an issue that caused an App Request notification to display in Jamf School after the App Request was deleted.

  • Placeholder devices now display changes made by the user in Devices > Placeholders and Devices > DEP.

  • Fixed an issue that prevented syncing classes when the class name contained only numbers.

  • Fixed an issue that incorrectly displayed an error message when an incident was registered for a device without a user.

Jamf School 8.8.10 (2020-08-20)

Bug Fixes and Enhancements

Jamf School

  • Fixed an issue that prevented selecting the fetched OUs after retrieving OUs for an LDAP synchronization while using Safari as your browser.

  • Fixed an issue that failed to display the Jamf School success message to the user after the MDM profile was successfully installed on a device enrolled using User Enrollment.

  • Fixed an issue that incorrectly displayed the VPN payload on a User Enrollment profile.

  • Fixed an issue that prevented user creation information from being prepopulated during Setup Assistant after authenticating with Microsoft Azure.

  • Fixed an issue that incorrectly prompted users for their SecureToken when Bypass the Secure Token Authentication prompt when creating a Mobile Account was enabled on the Directory payload of a computer profile.

  • Fixed an issue that caused the Refresh Managed Documents error message to display incorrectly in the computer activity log.

  • Removed the Allow Password Change setting for Kerberos from the App Extension SSO payload for mobile device profiles.

  • Fixed an issue that caused the Password Req Complexity setting to default to zero when configuring the App Extension SSO payload on a computer profile.

Jamf School 8.8.9 (2020-08-12)

Bug Fixes and Enhancements

Jamf School

  • Fixed an issue that prevented Apple's Classroom app from functioning correctly on mobile devices with iOS 13.6 that were managed by Jamf School.

  • Fixed an issue that displayed an attention message incorrectly in a device's activity log.

  • Fixed an issue that prevented a placeholder device from being assigned to a user when the AssignToUser field in the CSV file was configured.

Jamf School 8.8.8 (2020-08-10)

Mobile Device Profile Enhancements (Network Usage Payload)

The following enhancements have been made to the Network Usage payload:

  • Apps added to the Jamf School App Catalog are automatically added to the list of application rules.

  • Cellular Data Usage for Managed Apps and Roaming Data Usage for Managed Apps are now global payload settings that apply to all apps on the Network Usage payload.

  • You can now allow or restrict cellular data and data roaming on a per-app basis.

Bug Fixes and Enhancements

Jamf School

  • Fixed an issue that prevented the device group membership from displaying when viewing the devices in app scope.

  • Fixed an issue that displayed duplicate Cancel and Save buttons on the Notifications payload of a profile.

Jamf School Teacher

  • Fixed an issue that allowed teachers assigned to a class to receive Raise Hand requests when Jamf School Teacher was disabled.

  • Fixed an issue that caused multiple notifications to appear on a teacher's device when an app request was accepted or denied.

Jamf School 8.8.7 (2020-07-30)

Agreements Updated

Because Jamf School has updated customer agreements, administrators have 31 days from today to accept the updated agreements. Every customer must accept those agreements to keep using Jamf School. To sign the agreements, log in to Jamf School and follow the prompt to sign the updated agreements.

Jamf School 8.8.6 (2020-07-28)

Jamf School 9.0.0 Beta Released

You can now test and provide feedback on new the features in the Jamf School 9.0.0 beta. For more information about how to sign up for the beta, see Jamf School Beta Program.

Bug Fixes and Other Enhancements

Jamf School

  • You can now choose to remove or keep the current owner of a device upon re-enrollment of an unenrolled placeholder device.

  • Fixed an issue that prevented creating login information when importing parent user accounts with a CSV file and the Automatically create login details and send them by e-mail setting was enabled.

  • When filtering profiles on the device and user overview, the results now load faster.

Jamf School Teacher

Fixed an issue that prevented attention messages from clearing on student devices when Jamf School Teacher restrictions were cleared in Jamf School.

Jamf School 8.8.5 (2020-07-14)

Jamf School Apps (Enhancement for Environments Hosted in Germany)

Customers with Jamf School environments hosted in Germany can now use the Jamf Parent, Jamf School Teacher, and Jamf School Student apps in addition to ZuluDesk Parent, ZuluDesk Teacher, and ZuluDesk Student.

Terminology Changes

  • "Whitelist" has been updated to "safelist".

  • "Blacklist" has been updated to "blocklist".

Bug Fixes and Other Enhancements

Jamf School

  • You can now enable the Delete Removed Groups setting to remove user groups that are no longer in your LDAP active directory.

  • You can now choose to remove or keep the current owner of a device upon re-enrollment of an unenrolled placeholder device.

Jamf School Teacher

  • Fixed an issue that allowed teachers to add students to a managed class.

Jamf School 8.8.4 (2020-06-30)

Remote Class (Jamf School Teacher Enhancement)

Teachers can now invite students to video meetings using the Jamf School Teacher for iOS app. They can add a meeting invite link from video conferencing software to Jamf School Teacher and then select the class or students they want to invite to the meeting. To enable this feature in Jamf School, navigate to Organization > Settings > Jamf School Teacher and select the Allow teachers to use Remote Class checkbox. For more information about how to configure this feature, see Configuring the Jamf Teacher App in Jamf School.

For more information about how teachers use the Remote Class feature, see Jamf Teacher App Overview in this guide and Inviting Students to a Remote Class in the Jamf Teacher Guide for Teachers.

Bug Fixes and Other Enhancements

Jamf School

  • Added "staff" and "none" options to the Managed Apple ID type user filter.

  • The Allow pairing with other computers setting in an Automated Device Enrollment profile (DEP profile) can only be enabled for mobile devices with iOS 12 or earlier.

Jamf School 8.8.3 (2020-06-25)

Bug Fixes and Enhancements

Jamf School

  • The Mail payload is now distributed to Shared iPad users instead of the Shared iPad .

  • Fixed an issue that displayed names incorrectly in the Japanese user interface.

  • The Display Name setting was reverted back to Given Name for Microsoft Azure authentication in Jamf School.

  • The audit log now logs when a Volume Purchasing user registration invitation is sent.

  • Fixed an issue that caused the name of classes to display incorrectly when editing the name.

  • Fixed an issue that prevented using one character for a first name or last name.

  • Fixed an issue that caused some packages to fail to upload when they did not contain .app files or contained multiple bundles that installed in the Applications folder.

Jamf Parent

You can now allow parents to clear the passcode on their child's school-issued device by navigating to Organization > Settings > Jamf Parent and selecting the Allow parents to clear their child's device passcode checkbox.

Jamf School 8.8.2 (2020-06-17)

Bug Fixes and Enhancements

Jamf School

  • Fixed an issue that prevented a device from being renamed immediately when the Allow modifying device name setting was enabled.

  • The Allow Network Checker for group pop-up menu in Organization > Settings > Jamf School Student was removed.

  • Fixed an issue that prevented using a bulk quick action command to revoke licenses from apps and books purchased in volume from Apple School Manager.

  • Fixed an issue that incorrectly displayed variables on the wallpaper of placeholder devices.

  • You can now move a device to the location of the authenticated user during enrollment.

Jamf School 8.8.1 (2020-06-08)

Jamf School Interface Language Enhancement

The Jamf School user interface translations in French and Dutch have been improved. To change the preferred language, navigate to the flag icon images/download/thumbnails/81549923/Screen_Shot_2020-05-27_at_10.26.56_AM.png in the top right corner of Jamf School and select your language.

Bug Fixes and Enhancements

Jamf School

  • Fixed an issue that incorrectly displayed Managed Apple IDs on mobile device wallpapers.

  • You can now allow parents to clear the passcode on their child's school-issued device by navigating to Organization > Settings > Jamf Parent and selecting the Allow parents to clear their child's device passcode checkbox.

  • You can now view links to the Jamf School API and API documentation by navigating to Organization > Settings > API in Jamf School.

  • You can now distribute the Font payload to devices with iOS 7 or later and computers with macOS 10.9 or later using a profile in Jamf School.

  • Fixed an issue that allowed Shared iPads to be assigned to users with a bulk quick action command.

  • You can now specify the group name when configuring LDAP synchronization.

  • To redirect users to authenticate with a Microsoft Azure web clip, you can now use the full URL for your Jamf School server followed by "/link.html" or "/link".

Jamf School 8.8.0 (2020-05-28)

Jamf School Interface Language Enhancement

You can now view the Jamf School user interface in German, Spanish, and Japanese. To change the preferred language, navigate to the flag icon images/download/thumbnails/81549923/Screen_Shot_2020-05-27_at_10.26.56_AM.png in the top right corner of Jamf School and select your language.

Jamf School 8.7.10 (2020-05-27)

Bug Fixes and Enhancements

Jamf School

  • You can now remove apps installed using the Jamf School Student for macOS app from computers.

  • Fixed an issue that attempted to install in-house documents scoped to computers.

  • Fixed an issue that caused users to be assigned to the main location when using Google Secure LDAP as the authentication method in a secondary location.

  • Fixed an issue that displayed the incorrect redirect URI for Microsoft Azure. The web clip for the Microsoft Azure redirect URI is the full URL for your Jamf School server, followed by "/link.html".

Jamf School Teacher/Student

  • Fixed an issue that prevented message notifications from displaying until the app was refreshed.

Jamf School 8.7.9 (2020-05-19)

Bug Fixes and Enhancements

Jamf School

  • You can now send the "Refresh cellular plans" quick action command as a bulk action.

  • Fixed an issue that prevented phone numbers without hyphens from displaying when enabling Lost Mode on a device.

  • Fixed an issue that prevented the "Enable Find My Mac" quick action command from displaying for Jamf School servers in the U.S.

Jamf School Teacher

Fixed an issue that broke some Help Guide URLs in the French version of the app.

Jamf School 8.7.8 (2020-05-13)

Bug Fixes and Enhancements

Jamf School

  • Fixed an issue that occasionally caused a 414 error when sending the "Add to Group" bulk quick action command to many devices or users at once.

  • Fixed an issue that caused compressed images with ".*" uploaded in a ZIP archive file to be read as separate images.

  • When configuring authentication settings, you can no longer store credentials for Microsoft Azure or Google.

  • Fixed an issue that caused a 404 error when clicking Documents in the top-right corner of the VPP license overview page.

  • Fixed an issue that prevented clicking the items in the top navigation pop-up menus on low browser resolutions.

  • Packages with multiple apps now display the package contents when viewing the package details page.

Jamf School Student

  • Fixed an issue that caused teachers removed from Jamf School to still appear in the list of teachers for Raise Hand in the mobile app.

Jamf School 8.7.7 (2020-05-06)

Bug Fixes and Enhancements

Jamf School

  • "Users & Groups" in the sidebar navigation has been renamed "Users".

  • Fixed an issue that prevented selecting "AFP" as a mount style from the Directory payload.

  • Fixed an issue that prevented downloading the example .zip images file.

  • Fixed an issue that occasionally caused "No Results Found" to display for OUs in the LDAP synchronization settings after retrieving OUs and saving the settings.

  • Fixed an issue that caused removed placeholders assigned to a perpetual license from being excluded from the perpetual license count.

Jamf School Student

Fixed an issue that occasionally prevented active lessons from displaying on the dashboard of the Student app.

Jamf School 8.7.6 (2020-04-29)

Bug Fixes and Enhancements

Jamf School

  • Fixed an issue that displayed two Retry buttons on the device record when installing apps.

  • Fixed an issue that prevented saving custom data in the Web Content Filter payload.

  • Fixed an issue that caused quotations in the device model name to display incorrectly for scripts and profiles.

  • Fixed an issue that prevented read-only administrators from viewing the Media Content tab in the Restrictions payload.

  • Fixed an issue that caused the Clear Activation Lock quick action command to delay when executed.

Jamf School 8.7.5 (2020-04-21)

Bug Fixes and Enhancements

Jamf School

  • Fixed an issue that occasionally caused items in the bottom of the sidebar navigation menu to display incorrectly.

  • Fixed an issue that prevented assigning Automated Device Enrollment profiles to Apple TV devices when the language and region were set to Norwegian Bokmål or Catalan in the Setup Assistant.

Jamf School 8.7.4 (2020-04-17)

Bug Fixes and Enhancements

Jamf School

  • Improved the parsing of packages that contain bzip2 encoded files.

  • Fixed an issue that occasionally caused commands to fail after executing the "Clear Parent Restrictions" bulk quick action command.

  • Fixed an issue that caused some group OUs to fail to sync with Jamf School from the LDAP directory service.

Jamf School 8.7.3 (2020-04-09)

Bug Fixes and Enhancements

Jamf School

  • Fixed an issue that prevented the layout editor in the Layout payload from displaying correctly when adding three or more apps to a folder.

  • Fixed an issue that caused the Live Chat menu item to display incorrectly in the sidebar.

  • You can now view links to the Jamf Parent and Jamf School Teacher web app URLs and App Store page by navigating to Organization > Settings > Jamf Parent or Organization > Settings > Jamf School Teacher.

  • You can now retrieve CNs with OUs from your LDAP directory service by navigating to Organization > Settings > Synchronize and selecting the Retrieve CNs with OUs from your directory service checkbox.

Jamf School Teacher for iOS

Fixed an issue that caused app updates on the dashboard to display in the Available Updates section after the app was updated.

Jamf School 8.7.2 (2020-04-08)

Bug Fixes and Enhancements

Jamf School

  • You can now sync users directly from your LDAP directory service base DN if you do not have OUs by navigating to Organization > Settings > Synchronize and selecting the Use the base DN for all users checkbox.

  • Fixed an issue that caused an authentication failure to prevent SFTP uploads.

  • A message now displays in the audit logs when the clear device passcodes bulk quick action command is sent.

  • Fixed an issue that caused parsing errors for some packages.

Jamf Parent for iOS

Fixed an issue that prevented parents from setting restrictions on student devices when the Allow unlimited use during the configured holidays checkbox was selected.

Jamf School 8.7.1 (2020-04-01)

Bug Fixes and Enhancements

Jamf School

  • You can now upload packages that do not contain an .app file to Jamf School.

  • The Automated Device Enrollment profile must always be installed on computers enrolled via Automated Device Enrollment because the Require the MDM profile to be installed checkbox on the macOS Automated Device Enrollment profile has been removed.

  • Fixed an issue that allowed administrators to assign devices to an Automated Device Enrollment profile that did not match the OS of the device.

  • Fixed an issue that caused a renewed push certificate to display as expired.

  • Fixed an issue that prevented the "Shared profile" label from displaying for Automated Device Enrollment profiles (DEP profiles) for computers.

  • The profile removal password setting has been removed from Jamf School. All profile payloads are merged into the MDM profile, which cannot be removed by users from devices enrolled with Automated Device Enrollment.

Jamf School 8.7.0 (2020-03-24)

Compatibility with macOS, iOS, iPadOS, and tvOS

Jamf School now provides compatibility for the following:

  • macOS 10.15.4

  • iOS 13.4

  • iPadOS 13.4

  • tvOS 13.4

This includes compatibility for the following management workflows:

  • Enrollment and inventory reporting

  • Profiles

  • App distribution

Compatibility and new feature support are based on testing with the latest Apple beta releases.

Support for Custom Apps from Apple School Manager

You can now distribute custom apps from Apple School Manager using Jamf School. For more information about custom apps, see Learn about Custom apps in Apple School Manager in Apple’s Apple School Manager User Guide.

Profile Payload Enhancements

The following setting has been added to the Restrictions payload:

Allow accessing websites using TLS 1.0 and TL 1.1—Allows you to allow or prevent users from accessing websites that use TLS 1.0 and TLS 1.1 to be accessed using Safari.

The following setting has been added to the Content Caching payload:

Automatically enable Internet connection sharing when possible and prevent disabling Internet connection sharing (macOS 10.15.4 or later)—Automatically enables Internet connection sharing when possible and prevent disabling Internet connection sharing.

Content Caching Information (New Category)

You can now collect content caching information for computers with macOS 10.15.4 or later. For more information, see Apple's documentation: https://developer.apple.com/documentation/devicemanagement/contentcachinginformationresponse/statusresponse?changes=latest_minor

You can create a smart group based on the following attributes:

  • Active—Displays when content caching is ready and able to accept server requests.

  • Actual Cache Used (GB)—Displays disk usage above or below a certain byte amount.

  • Cache Free (GB)—Displays free disk usage above or below a certain byte amount.

  • Cache Status—Level of cache pressure. "Low Space" means cache pressure is high.

Dynamic Quota for Shared iPad Users

You can now configure the storage quota per user on Shared iPads with iOS or iPadOS 13.4 or later by using the Shared iPad User Storage Quota pop-up menu in the Automated Device Enrollment profile (DEP profile) settings. This overrides the Max. number of users setting when it is configured. If the storage quota is configured, the storage quota per user displays in the device details pane in the Shared iPad criteria. For more information about how to configure an Automated Device Enrollment profile, see Automated Device Enrollment.

Shared iPad Temporary Session

A Shared iPad temporary session allows users to log in to a Shared iPad as a guest on iPads with iPadOS 13.4 or later without using a Managed Apple ID. You can now enable a Shared iPad temporary session for a class by selecting the Allow Shared iPad temporary session (iPadOS 13.4 or later) checkbox on the class details pane. You can also enable and disable Shared iPad temporary sessions by using bulk quick action commands.

Jamf School 8.6.3 (2020-03-23)

Bug Fixes and Enhancements

Jamf School

Fixed an issue that caused the navigation sidebar to display incorrectly when changing the browser resolution.

Jamf Parent

Fixed an issue that allowed parents to use location-based restrictions in the Parent web app when the Allow use of locations checkbox was disabled in Jamf School.

Jamf School 8.6.2 (2020-03-16)

Jamf School Interface Restyling

To improve accessibility, the sidebar and top menu bar in the Jamf School interface have been restyled.

images/download/attachments/81549923/Screen_Shot_2020-03-16_at_8.10.44_AM.png

Bug Fixes and Enhancements

Jamf School

  • Fixed an issue that caused revoked push certificate notification emails to send every day.

  • Fixed an issue that prevented copying the Azure redirect URIs for Automated Device Enrollment, On-device enrollment, and web clips.

  • Fixed an issue that prevented a user from logging in to the App Store when tapping Check media status on a book purchased through Apple School Manager.

  • Fixed an issue that caused the UserSync percentage to rise above 100 percent.

  • You can now configure six apps per row using the Layout payload in an iOS profile.

  • You can now edit the name of the main location in Jamf School when synchronization is configured.

  • The server token (VPP token) labeled "Primary account" is now labeled as "Default Token".

  • Fixed an issue that prevented shared groups in the main location from being assigned to placeholder devices in a sublocation when editing an individual device placeholder.

  • Fixed an issue that caused LDAP sync to fail. If you want to refresh the pre-populated OUs, you can navigate to Organization > Settings > Synchronization and click Retrieve OUs. For more information, see Synchronizing an LDAP Directory Service with Jamf School.

Jamf School Teacher for iOS

Fixed an issue that prevented teachers from selecting only one app in App Lock.

Jamf School Teacher Web App

Fixed an issue that prevented parents from changing the password to their account when LDAP authentication was configured.

Jamf Parent

  • Fixed an issue that caused an error to display in the Jamf Parent mobile app and web app if the student was assigned to at least one mobile device and a computer.

  • Fixed an issue that allowed parents to view the password settings page when password changes for the Jamf Parent web app were restricted in Jamf School.

Jamf School 8.6.1 (2020-03-05)

Additional U.S. Region IP Addresses

Due to the migration to AWS, additional IP addresses will need be safelisted if your Jamf School server is hosted in the U.S. region and you are using LDAP synchronization. You must safelist the following IP addresses:

  • 18.211.254.129

  • 35.172.167.222

  • 52.7.228.194

You should also remove the following legacy LDAP synchronization IP address: 34.194.184.59

Bug Fixes and Enhancements

Jamf School

  • Fixed an issue that prevented downloading CSV files when uploading users via SFTP and a user was configured without a first or last name.

  • Fixed an issue that caused Automated Device Enrollment (DEP) sync to fail when the main location shared a default Automated Device Enrollment profile with a sub location that already had a default Automated Device Enrollment profile.

  • Fixed an issue that prevented administrators from viewing devices that failed to check in when clicking the error message link on the devices overview pane.

  • Fixed an issue that prevented wallpaper images from displaying correctly when a QR code was added.

  • Fixed an issue that occasionally prevented Apple Books purchased from Apple School Manager from installing because the license could not be assigned.

  • Fixed an issue that caused a profile with the Notification payload configured to fail installation when the Enforce notifications for Jamf School Student checkbox was enabled.

  • Administrators can now select the Send notification email to reseller checkbox in Organization > Settings > Notifications to notify their reseller when their push certificate expires.

  • When configuring LDAP synchronization, you can now enter your base DN in the Base DN field to pre-populate OU values. For more information, see Synchronizing an LDAP Directory Service with Jamf School.

  • Fixed an issue that caused the MDM profile to fail to install after authenticating with Microsoft Azure during Automated Device Enrollment (formerly DEP).

Jamf School 8.6.0 (2020-02-25)

Jamf Parent App Enhancement

Parents can now log in to the Parent app, but not restrict their child's device, when logging in during a restricted time configured in Jamf School.

Jamf School Bug Fixes and Enhancements

  • You can now view the redirect URI for the Microsoft Azure web clip by navigating to Organization > Settings > Authentication in Jamf School.

  • When viewing a removed profile in the activity log, the profile name now displays.

  • Added a check on required fields before uploading to Apple School Manager using SFTP within Jamf School.

  • Teachers can now log in to Jamf School Teacher using the login credentials generated in Jamf School while Azure authentication is enabled.

  • When the Apple push certificate in Jamf School expires or is revoked, an error message now displays on the Organization > Settings > Apple Push Notification service pane and a notification displays in the Notification Center.

  • Apple School Manager locations in the synchronization settings are now sorted alphabetically.

  • Fixed an issue that caused all locations to be included in the generated CSV file when only one location was configured to be uploaded to Apple School Manager using SFTP.

  • Fixed an issue that caused duplicate Allow ring/silent switch checkboxes to display for single app mode restrictions.

  • Fixed an issue where the SSL certificate for the LDAP synchronization couldn’t be fetched.

  • Fixed an issue that created duplicate student records in Jamf School Teacher.

  • Fixed an issue that allowed administrators to add duplicate apps to device groups when navigating away from the Add app pop-up dialog before clicking Add.

  • Fixed an issue that caused an error with the Dates window when adding a new holiday and using the audit logs filter in Jamf School.

  • Fixed an issue that displayed the display name and icon for web clips incorrectly, causing the profile to fail to install.

  • Fixed an issue that prevented computers in the scope of a macOS profile with a 801.x connection configured from connecting to a 801.x ethernet connection when the profile was created in Jamf School.

  • Fixed an issue that occasionally caused apps purchased through Apple School Manager to incorrectly be marked as unavailable.

  • Fixed an issue that caused an error when requesting an app using the Jamf School Teacher mobile app when the teacher was assigned to a sublocation in Jamf School.

  • Fixed an issue that caused a 500 error to display when viewing some profiles.

  • Fixed an issue that caused the instructor id in a CSV file uploaded to Apple School Manager via SFTP to be empty for users that have just been created.

Jamf School 8.5.8 (2020-02-13)

On-device Enrollment Authentication Enhancements

Users can now authenticate using their Google Secure LDAP or Microsoft Azure credentials during on-device enrollment. For more information, see User Enrollment and On-Device Enrollment.

Jamf School Bug Fixes and Enhancements

  • Fixed an issue that prevented the Enable VPN On Demand checkbox from displaying when CustomSSL VPN was configured.

  • You can now log out all users currently logged in on a Shared iPad using the Log Out User bulk quick action command.

  • Fixed an issue that caused some in-house apps to not display an image on the app details pane.

  • Fixed an issue that caused a profile with the SCEP payload configured to fail when the Fingerprint field was configured.

  • Fixed an issue that allowed users to change their computer password from Security & Privacy in System Preferences when Allow user to change their password was restricted with a computer profile.

  • Fixed an issue that prevented single sign-on from being configured properly when Kerberos was selected as the sign-on type.

  • Fixed an issue that prevented the pop-up dialog from expanding when more than three documents were uploaded to Jamf School.

  • Fixed an issue that caused apps assigned to all locations to display in a sublocation class with Shared iPads.

  • Fixed an issue that prevented the Microsoft Azure web clip from sending authentication information to Jamf School.

  • The text "Agreements" now displays on the Agreements pane instead of "Devices in scope".

  • Fixed an issue that prevented an alert message from displaying when navigating to Organization > Settings > Jamf School Teacher from a sublocation when settings are enforced from the main location.

  • Notifications are now sent when server tokens (DEP tokens) are rejected in Jamf School.

  • Whitespaces before and after OUs entered in Jamf School are now automatically removed.

  • Fixed an issue that caused a page error when redirected to two or more pages in Jamf School.

Jamf School 8.5.7 (2020-01-30)

Jamf School Bug Fixes and Enhancements

  • Fixed an issue that prevented devices with spaces at the end of their serial number from displaying in Devices > DEP after an Automated Device Enrollment profile (DEP profile) was assigned to the device.

  • Fixed an issue that caused the certificate signing request downloaded from Jamf School to download as a .plist file instead of a .csr file.

  • Fixed an issue that occasionally caused a location mapping error to display when syncing Apple School Manager with Jamf School.

  • Fixed an issue that prevented configuring the scope of an in-house app from the app details pane.

  • Fixed an issue that caused restrictions set by Jamf Parent to fail when the child's device was offline while the Device Rule was configured.

  • License management now displays the total number of recurring and perpetual licenses and the number in use. You can view license usage by navigating to License Management > License Assignments.

  • When adding an OU that does not exist to the LDAP sync settings, the error message now displays the OU that caused the naming exception.

Jamf School 8.5.6 (2020-01-23)

Jamf School Bug Fixes and Enhancements

  • Fixed an issue that prevented agreements added to macOS Automated Device Enrollment profiles (DEP profiles) from displaying during enrollment.

  • Fixed an issue that caused Apple School Manager synchronization to occasionally fail with an incorrect error message detailing that the location no longer exists.

Jamf School 8.5.5 (2020-01-22)

Jamf School Bug Fixes and Enhancements

  • Service tokens (VPP tokens) are now labeled as "Shared" if the main location token is shared with sublocations in Jamf School.

  • Fixed an issue that prevented dragging and dropping the Apple push certificate file in the pop-up dialog when renewing the push certificate.

  • Fixed an issue that removed managed app configurations after refreshing the device.

  • Fixed an issue that caused an internal error when trying to sync Apple School Manager.

  • Fixed an issue that caused Apple's bug reporting profiles and logs to fail to upload to Jamf School.

  • Fixed an issue that prevented the Shortcuts app from being blocklisted on mobile devices with iOS 13 or later.

  • Fixed an issue that caused a 404 error to display when uploading certain packages to Jamf School.

Jamf School 8.5.4 (2020-01-15)

Jamf School Bug Fixes and Enhancements

  • Fixed an issue that prevented bulk clearing restrictions on user groups.

  • Fixed an issue that prevented administrators from viewing devices that failed to check in by clicking the error message link on the devices overview pane.

  • Fixed an issue that occasionally prevented the Jamf School Teacher log from loading correctly on the device details pane.

  • Fixed an issue that prevented icons for macOS in-house apps from displaying correctly.

Jamf School 8.5.3 (2020-01-10)

Jamf School AWS Migration

In an effort to serve our Jamf School customers better, Jamf School is migrating our infrastructure in our Frankfurt data center to Amazon Web Services (AWS). Starting today, in-house apps and documents will be stored in AWS S3. This allows us to leverage the AWS content delivery network for faster, more reliable and secure installation of these items.

Jamf School 8.5.2 (2020-01-09)

Jamf School Server Migration

On 31 January, Jamf School servers outside of the United States will be hosted in the Frankfurt, Germany region. If you use LDAP synchronization, you must safelist the IP addresses for the EU Frankfurt region. For more information, see Firewall Ports, IP Addresses, and URLs Used by Jamf School.

Setup Assistant Improvements

Text in the Setup Assistant has been revised to fix inaccuracies and provide additional information. For more information on the Setup Assistant, see Getting Started with the Setup Assistant.

Jamf School Teacher Web App Enhancements

  • Fixed an issue that changed the language in the app when opening Settings without modifying any settings.

  • Fixed an issue that prevented teachers from starting a lesson from Lessons in the sidebar because the Next button was disabled.

  • Fixed an issue that caused the app to crash when editing a lesson.

Jamf School Bug Fixes and Enhancements

  • Service tokens (VPP tokens) in the user overview pane now display the email used to obtain the token.

  • Fixed an issue that prevented administrators from sharing in-house apps with sublocations.

  • You can now clear the Activity Log using a bulk quick action command by clicking Clear Activity Log on the device overview page.

  • Fixed an issue that prevented teachers from applying a Weblock to individual devices in a class.

  • Fixed an issue that prevented service token (VPP token) messages from being resolved in the Notification Center.

  • Fixed an issue that prevented administrators from selecting a location to share an in-house app with on the app details pane.

  • Fixed an issue that caused "null" to display for the device color on the device overview pane and prevented the DEP devices overview pane from refreshing correctly.

  • Fixed an issue that caused an error to appear when syncing eDirectory LDAP in Jamf School.

  • Fixed an issue that caused the connection to fail in Jamf School for certain Google Secure LDAP servers.

Jamf School 8.5.1 (2019-12-18)

Bug Fixes and Enhancements

  • You can now enable or disable the automatic deletion of user accounts in Jamf School that were removed in the directory service by navigating to Organization > Settings > Synchronization and selecting or deselecting the Delete Removed Users checkbox.

  • You can now restrict the Screen Time, Classroom, Family Sharing, Sidecar, and Apple ID preference panes via profile.

  • You can now create smart groups and search for computers using the "Has EFI Password" criteria.

  • The Remove Image button only displays when a device group, user group, or class has an image.

  • Built-in app names now reflect the name of the app based on the OS version of the of the device.

  • Fixed an issue that prevented parents from creating App Locks in the Jamf Parent mobile device and web apps.

  • Fixed an issue that allowed administrators to view apps, documents, and profiles in a sublocation when those items were not shared with that sublocation.

  • Fixed an issue that prevented iOS 13 or later settings configured in the Exchange payload from being distributed in the profile.

Jamf School 8.5.0 (2019-12-11)

App Request

Teachers can now request apps for their students and classes using App Request in Jamf School Teacher. Teachers request apps by searching for the app in the App Store and sharing it with the Teacher app. You can send the following guide to teachers to help them use Jamf School Teacher: https://docs.jamf.com/jamf-teacher/guide-for-teachers/index.html

When teachers request an app, administrator accounts with the "App Request" privilege can review requests in Jamf School and approve, deny, or delete the requests. Teachers are then notified if the app request is approved or denied. For more information on App Request, see Enabling App Request.

Bug Fixes and Enhancements

  • When enrolling a device via Automated Device Enrollment (DEP) and the device is in a different location than the user, the device now moves to the user's location.

  • The "Managed" criteria in the device overview filter no longer reports devices marked as inactive if their status is unmanaged.

Jamf School 8.4.2 (2019-12-05)

Bug Fixes and Enhancements

  • Fixed an issue that prevented students in a custom (ad-hoc) class created in Jamf School Teacher from displaying in Apple's Classroom app.

  • Fixed an issue that caused disabled profiles with a safelist or blocklist to briefly install when an app is added or removed from the device.

  • Fixed an issue that caused device names configured using a policy with the %FullName% variable to display incorrectly after an owner was assigned.

  • The "Managed" criteria in the device overview filter no longer reports devices marked as inactive if their status is unmanaged.

  • Only iPad wallpapers with dimensions larger than the screen are resized to fit the screen.

Jamf School 8.4.1 (2019-11-27)

Bug Fixes and Enhancements

  • Fixed an issue that prevented the education certificate from being generated when an email certificate contained special characters (UTF-8).

  • Incident types are now ordered alphabetically.

  • Fixed an issue that caused no results to display when using the What filter in the Audit Log.

  • Fixed an issue that sometimes prevented administrators from editing student and teacher Organizational Units (OU) in the LDAP directory service sync OU settings.

Jamf School 8.4.0 (2019-11-21)

JumpCloud LDAP

JumpCloud is now a supported LDAP service. For more information, see Synchronizing an LDAP Directory Service with Jamf School.

Support for Kerberos

Support for Kerberos as an App Extension SSO sign-on type has been added.

Bug Fixes and Enhancements

  • The license count of apps set for deferred removal is now displayed on the VPP license details page in red.

  • When configuring LDAP, a warning now displays when the Bind password field is left blank.

  • Added additional requirements to settings in the Restrictions payload of a profile when the settings require supervised devices with iOS 13 or later.

  • When removing old classes and users from Apple School Manager and synching with Jamf School, the old class and users are now also removed from Jamf School. You can enable this feature by navigating to at Organization > Settings > Apple School Manager.

  • The Automated Device Enrollment profile (DEP profile) now displays the status of profile.

  • Fixed an issue that caused a 404 error when a reseller created a ticket in a sublocation.

  • Fixed an issue that caused "Not Enough Data" to display on the Jamf School dashboard for Popular Applocks.

Jamf School 8.3.1 (2019-11-14)

IServ LDAP

IServ is now a supported LDAP service. For more information, see Synchronizing an LDAP Directory Service with Jamf School.

Bug Fixes and Enhancements

  • Fixed an issue that caused a corrupted Security and Privacy payload when copying a profile from a reseller.

  • Fixed an issue that occasionally prevented Device Rules from updating in Jamf Parent.

Jamf School 8.2.6 (2019-11-06)

Classroom for macOS Enhancement

You can now automatically configure Apple's Classroom app for all local user accounts on computers. You can enable this feature by navigating to Organization > Settings > Apple Classroom.

Bug Fixes and Enhancements

Fixed an issue that caused special characters to display incorrectly in tables.

Jamf School 8.2.5 (2019-11-04)

Important Notice—ZuluDesk Managed Push Certificate

The Apple push certificates (APNs) managed by the ZuluDesk team (Push Topic is “com.apple.mgmt.XServer.01ab0995-0663-4e2d-a001-25e9ef3eaf9e”) will be deprecated in a future release. You will still be able to manage the devices that currently use the ZuluDesk Apple push certificate (APNs), but t he ZuluDesk team will not be able to manage your Apple push certificate (APNs) i n the future. Therefore, y ou must create a new Apple push certificate (APNs) to enroll new devices in Jamf School. To create a new Apple push certificate (APNs), navigate to Organization > Settings > Apple Push Notification Service . For more information, see Creating, Renewing, or Deleting an Apple Push Certificate.

Jamf School 8.2.4 (2019-10-30)

Bug Fixes and Other Enhancements

  • Fixed an issue that prevented images from being attached to incidents.

  • Fixed an issue that prevented third-party app icons from displaying in the Jamf Parent web app.

  • When configuring enrollment customizations, the Require authentication for enrollment checkbox is now only located in the Onboarding tab.

  • Improved the interface text in the General payload in Organization > Settings.

  • Fixed an issue that occasionally prevented administrators from running the "Disable Lost Mode" quick action command after the device reported its location.

  • Fixed an issue that prevented administrators with read only privileges for "Default (for new ACLs)" from clicking +Add on the Apps tab of a device group.

  • Fixed an issue that caused the simple search to not search the "Member Of" column in the device scope on the app details page.

  • Fixed an issue that caused old Shared iPad configurations in classes to display on the device.

  • Fixed an issue that caused an error when saving a user account if the administrator was assigned a role with the privilege to edit users but could not view stored user credentials.

  • Fixed an issue that caused the incorrect LDAP password to be used when testing the connection in Jamf School.

  • Fixed an issue that caused an error message in profiles to display incorrectly.

  • When parents attempt to log in to the Jamf Parent web application during a restricted time period set by Jamf School, an error message now displays.

Jamf School 8.2.2

Enrollment Customization Enhancements

You can now customize the language and the logo that appears during enrollment when enrollment customization is configured. During the Setup Assistant, the configured agreements display in the language that the user selected during setup. You can also configure the logo that displays during enrollment by navigating to Organization > Settings > Appearance. For more information, see Customizing the Automated Device Enrollment Experience.

Bug Fixes and Other Enhancements

  • Fixed an issue that caused an error to sometimes appear when navigating to Devices > Updates in Jamf School.

  • Fixed an issue that caused a the Pacific Daylight Time zone to not set correctly.

  • Fixed an issue that prevented an error message from displaying when logging in to the Jamf Parent web app with an account that does not have Jamf Parent permissions.

  • Fixed an issue that caused the CSV file example to fail to open in the Setup Assistant.

  • Fixed an issue that caused a delay in the search when adding teachers to a class.

Jamf School 8.2.0

Jamf School 8.2.0 provides compatibility for macOS 10.15.

Enrollment Enhancements

During Automated Device Enrollment (DEP enrollment), you can allow computers to skip the Screen Time and Touch ID setup screens during enrollment.

Activation Lock on Computers

You can now enable Activation Lock on computers with macOS 10.15 and a T2 chip. For a list of computers with a T2 chip, see the following article from Apple's support website: https://support.apple.com/HT208862 You can also view computers that support Activation Lock from the device details in Jamf School. To enable Activation Lock, navigate to Organization > Settings > Enrollment.

Profile Enhancements

Jamf School 8.2.0 includes new macOS 10.15 settings in the following profile payloads:

  • Privacy Preferences Policy Control—Added additional security settings for macOS 10.15.

  • Content Caching—Added the ability to configure alerts, automatically clean up disk space, and ensure the computer does not sleep.

  • Notifications—Added support for this payload on computers with macOS 10.15.

Other Enhancements

  • Added support for new gestures in macOS 10.15.

  • You can now configure if recently used apps appear separately in the Dock.

  • You can now control automatic macOS and app updates.

  • Jamf School now stores information about computer boot levels.

  • You can now configure Automatic Software update preferences for computers.

  • You can now automatically populate primary user information based on the user logged in to the computer.

  • You can now configure Associated Domains to use with features such as Extensible AppSSO, universal links, and Password AutoFill.

  • You can now configure a web content filter plugin.

Jamf School 8.1.1

Jamf Parent Enhancements

Added the ability to enforce local authentication to Jamf Parent when Google, Azure, or LDAP is configured as an authentication method.

Bug Fixes and Enhancements

Fixed an issue that prevented the Energy Saver payload from applying correctly on computers.

Jamf School 8.1.0

Jamf School 8.1.0 provides compatibility for iOS 13.1, iPadOS 13.1, and tvOS 13.

User Enrollment

iOS 13.1 and iPadOS 13.1 introduces User Enrollment as a new form of mobile device management for enrolling personally owned devices in a Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) program. It is designed to keep corporate data safe on devices while protecting users' privacy.

User Enrollment keeps personal and institutional data separate by associating a personal Apple ID with personal data and a Managed Apple ID with corporate data. This allows for a limited management of devices using a set of configurations and policies that associate management with the user, not the entire device. The user can access their corporate data without the administrator erasing, modifying, or viewing personal data. This separation allows users to keep their personal data protected and intact once the device is removed from Jamf School, while the corporate data is deleted.

User Enrollment allows administrators to:

  • Configure accounts

  • Configure per-app VPN

  • Install and configure apps

  • Require a passcode

  • Enforce certain restrictions

  • Issue an MDM command or query gathering information about apps, accounts and configuration provided by the MDM solution

  • Unenroll the device and cause all organizationally provided data, apps, and accounts to be deleted

User Enrollment prevents administrators from:

  • Obtaining any persistent device identities (like Serial Number, UDID or IMEI) and instead uses a unique value to identify the device for the duration of the enrollment

  • Setting the complex alphanumeric passcode restriction

  • Clearing the device passcode or lowering the security of the device

  • Enforcing certain restrictions

  • Taking over management of an app that a user installed themselves

  • Issuing an MDM command or query gathering information about apps downloaded with the user’s personal Apple ID

  • Remotely wiping the entire device

  • Accessing any cellular features

  • Adding payloads that collect logs on the device

  • Adding any supervised restrictions to the user’s device

Users can enroll devices using User Enrollment by navigating to the same enrollment URL as on-device enrollment. For example: "https://schoolname.jamfcloud.com/enroll". When prompted, users must enter their Managed Apple ID.

Enrollment Customization Enhancements

Jamf School 8.1.0 adds support for user authentication during enrollment with a Google account. For more information, see Setting Up Google Sign-In in Jamf School.

Apple TV Management Capabilities

You can now prevent Apple TV devices with tvOS 13 from going to sleep.

Jamf School 8.0.0

Jamf School 8.0.0 provides compatibility for iOS 13.

Enrollment Customization

You can use the Enrollment Customization settings in Jamf School to further customize the enrollment experience for a user when they enroll their computer or mobile device with Jamf School. Enrollment Customization allows you to configure custom branding, consent text, and modern authentication that displays during enrollment when enrolling using Apple School Manager. To configure custom branding settings, navigate to Organization > Settings > Appearance. To configure consent text in a DEP profile, navigate to Organization > Agreements.

Mobile Device Management Capabilities

Profile Enhancements

The following list provides an overview of the mobile device profile enhancements in this release, organized by payload:

  • Single App Mode—You can now enable or disable voice control and prevent users from configuring the setting.

  • Certificates—You can now allow or disallow private keys from being exported from the Keychain.

  • Exchange—You can now enable or disable the Calendars, Contacts, Mail, Notes, and Reminders services, and allow or disallow users from changing those settings. Additionally, ActiveSync now supports OAuth.

  • Network Usage Rules—You can now configure which SIM cards devices can use based on their Integrated Circuit Card Identifier (ICCID). You can also specify if Wifi Assist should be used.

  • Wi-Fi—You can now configure WPA3 networks.

  • Restrictions—The following restrictions have been added for supervised iOS devices:

    • Allow continuous path keyboard

    • Allow Find My Device

    • Allow Find My Friends

    • Allow modification of the WiFi state

    • Allow USB Drive access in the Files app

  • Single Sign On—iOS 13 introduces a new systemwide extension framework for SSO to make it easier for employees to login to corporate apps and websites. The new framework will support cloud identity providers who adopt this extension and in configurable via MDM.

Jamf Parent Web Application

The Jamf Parent web application has been rewritten from the ground up and allows parents for easy management of their kids devices. The new web app introduces a new, modern, look and feel and has support for mobile devices.

Copyright     Privacy Policy     Terms of Use     Security
© copyright 2002-2020 Jamf. All rights reserved.